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IECRC Bahrain Youth Conference 2016

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Links to Conference Videos:

Full Conference

Individual Presentations Playlist


Credit List

All Praise and Credit is due to Allah The Most Exalted

Countless and Choicest Blessings and Salutations upon

His Chosen Beloved and our Master Muhammad Rasool Allah

His Noble Family and Companions radi Allahu anhum ajmaeen


Conference Advisory Committee

Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ahmed Qadri, Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah Qadri



Imam Malik bin Anas radi Allahu anhu Society, Kingdom of Bahrain


Core Organizing Committee

Syeda Shagufta Ahmad Qadri, Sister Zarine Riaz Shaikh, Brother Riaz Shaikh, Sister Sadiya Riaz Shaikh, Syeda Sadia Naiman


Special Contributions

Brother Fakherul Islam Malik, Sister Ghazala Fakher, Brother Zainulabedin Muhammad Qadri (Publicity Artwork), Brother Javed Ahmed


Organizing Volunteers

Sister Shagufta Nasir Shaikh, Sister Shamim Hamid Khan (Transport)

Anam Asif, Arafat Diwan, Salman Waseem (Registration)


Event Volunteers

Brother Mohammad Ismail Hussain

Brother Faiz Zain

Brother Syed Obaid, Brother Mohammed Imtiyazuddin (Sound System)

Brother Shahin, Brother Hanif, Brother Rajib, Brother Ahmed Kamal (Hall Setup)

Hafiz Ebrahim Abdulaziz (Photography)


IECRC Boys Group Naat

Brother Alim Riaz Shaikh (Daff Reciter)

Brother Mohammed Taalib Riaz Shaikh

Brother Mohammed Mubashir Mustafa

Brother Ayman Nasir Shaikh

Brother Hassan Mustafa

Brother Anas Nasir Shaikh


A very special thanks to:

Brother Muhammad Tahir Qadri, Producer, Shifa TV


Written by Shagufta Ahmad

May 28, 2016 at 12:47 pm

IECRC Bahrain Picnic 2015

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A’oodhu biLlaahi minash shaytaanir rajeem
BismiLlaahir Rahmaanir Raheem
Nahmaduhu wa Nusalli wa Nusallimu ‘alaa Rasoolihil Kareem

IECRC Bahrain Picnic 2015

IECRC Bahrain conducts children’s classes on the first Saturday of each month.

After the completion of our 2nd annual year, we planned our first outing with both children and moms together. IECRC’S 1st annual children’s picnic spot was the “PRINCE SHAIKH KHALIFA BIN SALMAN PARK” famously known as “HIDD PARK” in the beautiful Kingdom of Bahrain. The day was Saturday 21st November, 2015.

With lots of preparations done by our dear aunties Zareen aunty (Chief Picnic Organizer) and Shagufta aunty and our dear aapis Sadiya aapi, Aysha aapi and Asha aapi, a perfect picnic was planned. All the snack and food items were pre-confirmed and a proper schedule and rules list were made by our aapis and few surprise fun activities were also planned in advance. Shagufta ammi showed us how to have fun but also not forget our religious duties.

We began our day with a surprise learning but fun activity. This activity was to find out prayer timings with the help of the sun. In this method we know prayer times by seeing the length of our shadow. So we had to see the length every 10 minutes. After this activity we played throw ball which was great fun and read Dhuhar Namaz followed by dua.

After Namaz there was a snack session. There were varieties of food, Alhamdulillah!!! We all ate our snacks. Later there was a parent teachers meeting. While the meeting was going on, all children were playing on their own. The meeting nearly took half an hour to complete. After the meeting there was a game arranged by Sadiya aapi. The game was ’20 questions’. This game was played as groups and it was a funny and interesting game. The thing which was most interesting in this game was guessing what’s in a person’s mind?? After this game, there was another game called ‘Charades’. This game was like ‘Dumsharaz’ but we had to enact an unknown word. The unique thing about all these games was that the words being used were all related to Islam. So while we had fun with familiar games, by using Islamic terms, we converted them to Islamic games!

After the game was over, we did our activity of determining Namaz time by our shadow. And yes! It was Asr now. We all read Namaz and had our lunch. Everyone shared and enjoyed the food. Lunch was yummy Biryani. The best part of the picnic was after lunch. A game called ‘Zombies’ was set. This game made all kids and elders run simultaneously and it was great fun. After this game there was another game called ‘Help!Help!’ which was also very enjoyable. All of us had a great time!

At the end of the day, as good Muslims we made sure the green park wasn’t dirty. We all cleaned whatever mess was made. Later we all were ready to leave. We left at Maghrib and few people left after Maghrib Namaz.  This wonderful day cheered us all. We had a great memorable time together. Insha Allah looking forward to go to IECRC’s picnic again next year!

I want to thank on behalf of all children our dear Shagufta ammi, Zareen aunty, all other aunties, Sadiya aapi, Aysha aapi, Asha aapi for organizing this wonderful picnic event. Below are some pictures from our picnic:

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Jazak Allah Khayr!

By Alina Naiman

Alina is an 11 year old active student at IECRC children’s classes in the Kingdom of Bahrain. She also attends and participates in IECRC’s other educational conferences and spiritual events. She loves to write and is also a budding poet and orator insha Allah! Masha Allah. May Allah protect all IECRC’s children. Aameen.

Written by iecrc

November 28, 2015 at 8:32 am

IECRC Bahrain Women’s Conference 2015

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IECRC Bahrain Women’s Conference 2015

Credit List


All Praise and Credit is due to Allah The Most Exalted

Countless and Choicest Blessings and Salutations upon

His Chosen Beloved and our Master Muhammad Rasool Allah

His Noble Family and Companions radi Allahu anhum ajmaeen




Conference Advisory Committee

Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ahmed Qadri, Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah Qadri



Imam Malik bin Anas radi Allahu anhu Society, Kingdom of Bahrain


Core Organizing Committee

Syeda Shagufta Ahmad Qadri, Sister Zarin Riaz Shaikh, Brother Riaz Shaikh, Sister Sadia Naiman


Special Contributions

Brother Zainulabedin Muhammad Qadri, Mr. Javed Ahmed, Sister Parveen (Dinner), Mr. Fakherul Islam Malik


Organizing Volunteers

Sister Sadiya Riaz Shaikh, Sister Shabina Khalid, Sister Shagufta Banu, Sister Shamim Hamid Khan, Sister Shehnaz Mushtaq Shaikh (Transport), Sister Atiya Shaukat, Sister Ghazala Mustafa


Event Volunteers

Brother Nadeem, Hafiz Zakir, Brother Ismail, Brother Mohammad Dastageer, Brother Ubaid (Sound System)

Sister Sadiya Riaz Shaikh, Sister Samawat Malik (Hall Decoration), Sister Danya Mustak Shaikh (Photography), Sister Tanuja Shamim, Sister Aysha Hameed Khan, Sister Eman Ishaq, Sister Eman Hameed Khan, Sister Rahat Aftab, Sister Uzaira Sohail, Sister Shabina Khalid, Sister Ghazala Fakher, Sister Shagufta Banu


Children’s Naat Group

Group Boys (From Left to Right, Back to Front Rows)

Taalib Riaz Shaikh, Sayed Fahad, Shahadat Haque, Anas Nasir, Hassan Mustafa, Ayaan Nasir, Zohan Mushtaq, Ali Hasan Mustafa

Group Girls (From Right to Left, Back to Front Rows)

Alina Naiman, Mehnaz Maqbool, Faiza Salauddin Shaikh, Saira Qayyum, Rida Naiman, Arwa Mushtaq, Zuha Shaikh, Mubarra Minal Tariq, Suha Shaikh, Mahira Minal Tariq, Fizzah Shaikh


A very special thanks to:

Brother Farouk (Digiarts Bahrain – Banner Design and Printing)

Istighaathah in the Shari’ah

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In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful

Countless and Choicest Blessings and Salutations upon His Noble Prophet

Istighaathah is an Arabic word which means to seek help. It is mentioned in the Holy Quran and the Prophetic Hadeeth. In the Shari’ah, Istighaathah is to seek help from other than Allah Almighty. We do this every time we seek help from the doctor when we are sick (knowing full well that Allah is the Ultimate Healer), or from the teacher when we want to learn something (knowing full well that Allah is the Ultimate Educator), or from the lawyer when we need legal services (knowing full well that Allah is the Ultimate Judge), or even from an older family member if we are in need of dua (knowing full well that it is Allah Almighty who ultimately fulfills our needs). However when we turn to the pious people of our tradition, viz, the Prophets and Awliya to seek their help, this act gets labeled as shirk. Why the anomaly? Why the double standard? It is simply because this is a satanic agenda to distance us from the Prophets alayhimus salaam and the Awliya radi Allahu anhum, as they are the guiding lights of Islam. Shaytan has promised to take people astray, and many modern day Muslims have fallen prey to his tricks.

The argument is that it is okay to seek help from the doctor, teacher, lawyer, and older family member because they are “alive” whereas it is not okay to seek help from the Prophets and Awliya because they are na’udhu biLlaah “dead.” Nothing could be further from the truth. Modern day science may have its definitions of life and death. However Islam has its own. Allah Almighty says in the Holy Quran:

And do not utter regarding those who are slain in Allah’s cause as “dead”; in fact they are alive, but it is you who are unaware. [2:154]

This single verse (and there are others in the Quran) very clearly spells out Allah Almighty’s definition of life and death. A person who is killed in the cause of Allah where overtly his or her body lays “lifeless,” is “alive” in the definition of the Quran.

There are two ways to get killed in the “cause of Allah.” One is on the external battlefield and the other is on the internal battlefield of one’s nafs (heart/soul). The inner struggle between good and evil inclinations is honored in Islam as having a higher status than that of the fight of the swords. The above verse is applicable to both the external jihadul asghar (lesser struggle) and the internal jihadul akbar (greater struggle). In other words, those who did not attain martyrdom on the external battlefield, attain it by fighting their nafs till they behead it and reach the status of nafs-ul-mutmainna (the peaceful soul). The Prophets of course have the highest and most unique status in creation. This is why the Quran always addresses the Mumineen in the order of the Nabiyyeen, Siddiqeen, Shuhada and Saliheen. Any quality bestowed to the Shuhada is a sub-set of the qualities of the Nabiyyeen. Therefore simple Boolean logic proves that if the Shuhada are alive, then so are the Prophets. And the Awliya are shaheed of the nafs and hence they too are alive.

“The Prophets are alive in their graves, praying.”[1]

Therefore it is very clear that the Prophets and specifically Syedul Ambiya Hazrat Muhammad Mustafa sal Allahu alayhi wa Aalihi wa sallam is most definitely alive and so are the Awliya Kiram radi Allahu anhum in their blessed resting places (Mazars / graves).

In light of this simple logic it is quite ludicrous to find floating on social media baseless images equating the making of duas at Mazar Sharifs to shirk. Those who create and propagate such imagery are doing nothing but facilitating the satanic propaganda. The claim that those who visit Mazar Sharifs are making dua “to” the Sahibe Mazar is an outcry and those who indulge in it are guilty of false accusations (bohtan). Dua is an act of ibadah and is strictly made to Allah whether we are standing near the Maqam Ibrahim, or the Hateem or the Rauza Mubarak or the Mazar of a Wali of Allah. Linguistically dua connotes “calling upon.” In this sense we can call upon anyone for help provided we believe that Allah is the Ultimate Helper.

In Surah Al-Maidah Allah Almighty calls Himself, His Rasool and the Mumineen as our friends.

You do not have any friends except Allah and His Noble Messenger and the believers [5:55]

What are friends for if we cannot call them in our time of need? And calling upon other than Allah in times of need is proven by several authentic Prophetic traditions two of which are quoted below:

It is related from Malik al-Dar, ‘Umar’s treasurer, that the people suffered a drought during the Khilafa of Syedna `Umar radi Allahu anhu, whereupon a man (Syedna Bilal ibn al-Harith radi Allahu anhu) came to the grave of the Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa Aalihi wa sallam and said: “O Messenger of Allah, ask for rain for your Community, for verily they have but perished,” after which the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wa Aalihi wa sallam) appeared to him in a dream and told him: “Go to ‘Umar and give him my greeting, then tell him that they will be watered. Tell him: You must be clever, you must be clever!” The man went and told ‘Umar, who said: “O my Lord, I spare no effort except in what escapes my power!”[2]

It is very clear from the above Hadeeth that a Sahabi-e-Rasool approached the Blessed Grave of the Holy Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa Aalihi wa sallam in a time of need and directly beseeched him sal Allahu alayhi wa Aalihi wa sallam for help. This is exactly what the Muslims have been doing for centuries and continue to do when they visit the Rauza-e-Rasool or the Mazars of the Awliya. So to label this as shirk is a direct accusation of shirk on the Sahaba wa ayaadhu biLlaah.

A similar Hadeeth is quoted below where a Noble Companion calls out to the Prophet of Allah sal Allahu alayhi wa Aalihi wa sallam when his foot falls asleep:

Foot Fell Asleep

As can be seen from the Arabic text above, the word “ud’u” is actually used which means “call upon.” And in response, Syedna Umar radi Allahu anhu’s son, a prominent authority in Hadeeth, responded “O Muhammad!” Hence calling upon Rasool Allah for help is proven by another act of a Sahabi. If calling upon Rasool Allah sal Allahu alayhi wa Aalihi wa sallam for help in his absence was shirk it would never have been done by a Sahabi.

These are just a few examples. There are numerous others.

The verses in the Holy Quran which censure the kuffar of Mecca for calling upon their hand-made lifeless idols for help cannot be applied to calling upon the Prophets and Awliya for help. Doing so is a great abomination and one that will not go unpunished in the Divine Court. The Prophets alayhimus salaam and Awliya Kiram radi Allahu anhum are more alive in their blessed resting places than some of us walking the earth due to the spiritually diseased states of our hearts.

The Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa Aalihi wa sallam made it very clear in the Sahih Bukhari Hadeeth #1344 that he does not fear shirk from his Ummah. So if the Prophet, who is the leader of this Ummah, doesn’t fear shirk, why is it such a phobia to some Muslims today? Why not worry about what the Prophet worries about and that is we will do “tanaafasu.” Of all the spiritual diseases of the nafs, scholars have highlighted this to refer to hasad or envy. This is a grievous problem in the Ummah and something we should seriously fear and seek protection against. Another major nafs issue is greed. There is no doubt that the Mazars, especially those of the Subcontinent, are plagued with greedy caretakers, perhaps a result of the poverty and corruption in these societies. However, greed for money, abysmal as that may be, is not shirk, and Muslims should refrain from using this weighty word loosely.


–Syeda Shagufta Ahmad Qadri



[1] Recorded by Abu Ya’la (6:147 #3425 Sahih) and Bazzar (Zawa’id, 3:100-01) in their Musnads, Ibn ‘Asakir in Tarikh Dimashq (4:285), and Imam Bayhaqi in his book Hayat al-Anbiya’ fi Quburihim (#1-3, Sahih according to Ibn Hajar in Fath al-Bari 6:487), Abu Nu’aym in Akhbar Asbahan (2:38), Daylami (Firdaws, 1:154 #402), Ibn ‘Adiyy (al-Kamil, 2:739), Tammam (Fawa’id, 1:33), and others. Haythami (Majma’ az-Zawa’id, 8:211 #13812), Suyuti, Munawi (Fayd al-Qadir, 5:467), Bayhaqi, Ibn Hajar (Matalib, #3452), and others said it is Sahih.

[2] Bayhaqi (Dala’il, 7:47), Ibn Abi Shayba (7:482-83), Bukhari in his Tarikh al-Kabir (7:304), Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr in his Isti’ab (2:464), Ibn ‘Asakir (44:345, 56:489), Tabari (Tarikh, 2:509 with another chain), Ibn Abi Khaythama (2:80), and is Sahih according to Ibn Kathir (Bidaya wa Nihaya 7:91-92=7:101 and Tafsir 1:91) and Ibn Hajar (Fath al-Bari 2:495-96)

Written by Shagufta Ahmad

October 15, 2014 at 9:02 pm

IECRC Youth Discussion Forum (YDF)*: The Internet

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Topic Suggested by: Faiz Zain (age 15 yrs), Kingdom of Bahrain

Discussion Script by: Saheeba Shaikh (age 20 yrs), Kingdom of Bahrain


The history  of the Internet starts  in the 1950s and 1960s as a global system of interconnected computer networks. The internet has changed our way of life. It is like a revolution that changed  the map of the world. As we know, Islam is a way of life. There is no topic  that is not related to Islam. Islam is often mistaken as a rigid religion. In  fact Islam is very wide, it is not rigid, and it only purifies the culture,  practices and other things through its principles for the betterment of all humanity. To understand the link between Internet and Islam, let us first understand what the sources of Information in Islam are. There are 2 types of sources
viz. Primary and Secondary. Primary sources are the Glorious Holy Quran and the Blessed Prophetic Hadeeth. The secondary sources are Ijma (Consensus-opinion of majority of Scholars) and Qiyas (Analogy-to apply a known  injunction to a new circumstance and create a new injunction). Now, since the internet has evolved only half a decade ago, any exact verse in the Quran or the Hadeeth has not been provided. Although Islam may not have talked about the Internet specifically, it has talked about the universal principles that govern the use of the internet. Thus we have to apply Qiyas in order to evaluate the internet in the light of Islam.

Internet as a Means of  Communication

What is the internet? It is basically a network connecting different devices for the purpose of communication. Thus, we know the main essence of internet is communication. There are many Hadeeth that provide us the guidelines as to how we should communicate with others. The main guidelines as told by our beloved Prophet Muhammad (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) are:

Whenever you speak, only speak the truth:

Narrated ‘Abdullah radi Allahu anhu:

The Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) said, “Truthfulness leads to righteousness, and righteousness leads to Paradise. And a man keeps on telling the truth until he becomes a truthful person. Falsehood leads to Al-Fajur (i.e. wickedness, evil-doing), and Al-Fajur (wickedness) leads to the (Hell) Fire, and a man may keep on telling lies till he is written before Allah, a liar.” (Sahih Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 73, number 116)

Narrated Samura bin Jundub radi Allahu anhu:

The Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) said, “I saw (in a dream), two men came to me.” Then the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) narrated the story (saying), “They said, ‘The person, the one whose cheek you saw being torn away (from the mouth to the ear) was a liar and used to tell lies and the people would report those lies on his authority till they spread all over the world. So he will be punished like that till the Day of Resurrection.”‘ (Sahih Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 73, Number 118)

Thus we know that, we must always abstain from telling lies even on the internet, like updating a Facebook status which is a lie, Tweeting a false statement or even e-mailing someone a lie.

Do not Backbite and slander and spy others :

“O you who believe! Avoid much suspicion, indeed some suspicions are sins. And spy not neither backbite one another. Would one of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother? You would hate it (so hate backbiting). And fear God, verily, God is the One who accepts repentance, Most Merciful.” (Holy Quran Al-Hujurat 49: 12)

 Prophet Muhammad (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) said: “Do you know what backbiting is?” They said, “God and His Messenger know best.” He then said, “It is to say something about your brother that he would dislike.” Someone asked him, “But what if what I say is true?” The Messenger of God (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) said, “If what you say about him is true, you are backbiting him, but if it is not true then you have slandered him.” (Muslim)

Thus we must refrain ourselves from any kind of backbiting, slander or even spying on the internet. We must not hack into others’ accounts or publish someone else’s private information without their permission. We must also not access some else’s account if they forget to sign out. We must also refrain from any vain, unnecessary talk like gossiping. If a group is indulged in such talk we must leave the group. Same applies to the internet.

Internet as a Source of Information

The second aspect of internet is that it serves as a source of information. We must first understand the difference between Data, Information and Knowledge.  Data are raw facts. E.g.: The letter “A”. As a single letter it doesn’t tell us much. However when combined with other letters and processed into a word such as “A”pple, it then becomes information, because the world “Apple” gives us the information that it is a fruit, its color may be red etc. Information therefore is processed data. Knowledge on the other hand is Light, it shows you the way, and is beneficial guidance. E.g.: An apple a day, keeps a doctor away. True knowledge will always benefit you. Internet can only be considered as a source of information and not a source of knowledge, i.e. guidance. We can get a world of information from the internet but not all of it may be correct. Therefore, we cannot consider it an authoritative source of knowledge because the internet can also be misguiding. The only true sources of guidance are the teachers and scholars who have the insight to process the information into knowledge which truly benefits. Nothing can replace a teacher. In the Islamic context, Information available on the internet cannot be considered superior to knowledge of the Ahle-dhikr (the People of Remembrance, i.e. the pious scholars.) As a matter of fact, the Holy Quran commands us to turn to the Ahle-Dhikr when we want knowledge:

 “…Ask the People of Remembrance, if you do not know.” (Holy Quran Al-Ambiya 21:7, An-Nahl 16:43)

We may gain much information from the internet but to say that we have the knowledge of Islam more than the learned scholars because we have read it on the internet is absolutely wrong. Apart from this, when we pass on the information to others on the internet, we must also make sure the information we pass is true and authentic. We should not blindly forward emails to others without checking its authenticity.

Internet as a Means of Da’wah (Invitation)

The third and the final aspect of the internet is that it is a means of Da’wah, i.e. inviting others to Islam in the best way. As we know internet is amongst the fastest ways to communicate to a large number of people at a time, we can use it to our advantage and gain much reward (sawab.)

“Invite to the Way of your Lord (i.e. Islam) with wisdom and fair preaching, and argue with them in a way that is better. Truly, your Lord knows best who has gone astray from His Path, and He is the Best Aware of those who are guided.” (Holy Qur’an, An-Nahl 16:125)

Thus we know the importance of Da’wah in Islam. We must all utilize the internet as a tool to teach and inform others about the truth of Islam especially given the many negative stereotypes that have become prevalent these days.


  • We can use the technique of Qiyas (Analogy) to relate Islam and Internet;
  • The main Guidelines to follow when using internet as a tool to communicate are: Always speak the truth; Never Backbite, Slander or Gossip; Respect each other’s privacy;
  • We must take care while we use the internet as a source of information. We must not rely on it as an authoritative source of guiding knowledge – this can only come from the pious scholars;
  • We must use internet as a tool to do Da’wah;

Saheeba Shaikh
(age 20 yrs), Kingdom of Bahrain


* YDF (Youth Discussion Forum) is an IECRC effort initiated in the Kingdom of Bahrain in order to engage Muslim youth in thoughtful and vibrant discussions on topics that are of interest to THEM. All too often youth are exposed to Islam in a one directional manner as a dry set of do’s and don’ts failing to reveal its rich intellectual heritage and spiritual depth and beauty. Through these discussions on topics chosen by the youth themselves, the goal of the YDF is three fold:

  1. To make youth realize that there is no topic that can be separated from the holistic principles and balanced values of Islam, whether it is the internet, music or movies; that Islam guides every area of life beyond praying, fasting and reading the Holy Quran.
  2. To break the stereotype that Islam is a dry set of do’s and don’ts and that on the contrary it is a vast and vibrant religion with a rich historical heritage which encourages intellectual discussions, not for the sake of polemics but for the sake of Allah and His Beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him and his family and companions.)
  3. To break the stereotype that Islam doesn’t care about how you feel about things. On the contrary Islam is very sensitive to human emotions and provides practical tools to channel it in a productive way thereby nurturing the spirit.

Written by Shagufta Ahmad

September 5, 2011 at 2:47 pm

Are Islamic Cultures Really Shame-Based? Part 1

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Modern Psychology has divided cultures into two categories—shame-based and guilt-based. According to the theory, shame-based cultures (primarily tribal) are considered inferior to guilt-based (primarily Western Judeo-Christian cultures). The reasoning behind this theory is that shame-based cultures employ shame to effect behavior which in turn leads to a wounded self-worth, rather than guilt—a liberating emotion. Accordingly, guilt-based cultures carry around a global feeling that “I have done something bad” versus “I am bad” in shame-based cultures. Modern psychology places Islamic cultures, under the banner of shame-based. 

With this is perspective, some have implied that because Islamic culture is “shame-based”, its collective wounded psyche needs a scape-goat to project blame on and thus Israel and the West have become just that—scape-goats for a wounded Islamic psyche.  As a product of this wounded psyche, heinous acts of terrorism, exploitation of women and children, and other demeaning and harmful behavior becomes “normal” for Islamic societies. Since the world has done away with slavery and dhimmis (non-Muslim subjects under the protection of the Muslims) the natural outcome of this culture is therefore to turn to the current “weaker” elements of society.

Quoting a recent article on guilt vs. shame cultures, a particular “Dr. Sanity” in her blog reinforces the “superiority” of guilt cultures and contrasts it with Islamic cultures:

“The guilt culture is typically and primarily concerned with truth, justice, and the preservation of individual rights. As we noted earlier, the emotion of guilt is what keeps a person from behavior that goes against his/her own code of conduct as well as the culture’s. Excessive guilt can, of course, also be pathological. I am solely referring to a psychologically healthy appreciation of guilt.” The author further says, “In contrast, a typical shame culture (e.g., Japan as discussed by Benedict; or the present focus of this discussion: Arab/Islamic culture) what other people believe has a far more powerful impact on behavior than even what the individual believes. As noted by Gutman in his writings, the desire to preserve honor and avoid shame to the exclusion of all else is one of the primary foundations of the culture. This desire has the side-effect of giving the individual carte blanche to engage in wrong-doing as long as no-one knows about it, or knows he is involved.”

What Gutman is referring to in the excerpt is something called “ghayrah” in Arabic and “ghayrat” in Urdu. It refers to that trait which is linked with self-honor, self-respect, good-reputation, or good-name of a person, family, or tribe. It is also loosely translated as shame in English. When employed positively, ghayrah can serve as a preventative of societal evil rather than dishonoring one’s self, family, tribe, ethnic group, and even country. When employed negatively, typically by political entities with the intent to cause sectarian violence or enmity between tribes and families, it can incite honor killings, retaliation, and many other crimes that are typically committed in rural and lesser educated sectors of the Muslim world. While ghayrah serves as a preventative of evil deeds in most cases and even “perceived evils” in some, it is not a global phenomenon in the Muslim world and varies demographically.

Before delving into whether or not the Islamic culture is shame-based, it only makes sense that we define a few concepts with respect to the nafs or self that has a bearing on the development of character as described in Islamic psychology.

Guilt has always played a part as a reminder and preventative of genocide historically, and we see this in reminders of the Holocaust, the Crusades, and other such horrific events. In the theological analysis of Christianity, we find that guilt plays a vital part in Christian creed and devotion. Christianity holds responsible, among others, for the “death of Jesus” (peace be upon him) the entire humanity now, then, and forever, due to its sinfulness. By contrast, guilt has no theological or creedal implication in Islam. However, it does play a major part in the redemption of the human spirit. Nevertheless, it is not a primary motivator towards performing good deeds or devotion. In the Islamic psyche, guilt plays a part, but mainly in prevention of committing the same evil deed again.  That is because one of the conditions of seeking forgiveness of God in Islam is that the perpetrator must genuinely be remorseful of the deed by recognizing before God that an offence has been committed. The other two conditions include vowing never again to return to the action (even though a person may return to it through weakness), and by seeking God’s forgiveness (maghfirah).  If the offence is committed against a fellow human-being, the perpetrator must genuinely be remorseful of the action by recognizing before the victim that an offence has been committed in addition to God and, and if possible and reasonable, the wrong deed must be rectified.

The primary motivator of the conscience is guilt. In Middle English etymology, conscience is described as the means to be conscious, to be conscious of guilt, or to be aware of guilt. Based on the old definition, a conscientious person would have been described as one who feels guilt when a bad deed has been committed. The modern-day definition of conscience is more elaborate and diverging from its original. The Merriam-Webster dictionary describes it as the sense or consciousness of the moral goodness or blameworthiness of one’s own conduct, intentions, or character together with a feeling of obligation to do right or be good, and in another meaning, a faculty, power, or principle enjoining good acts. In Freudian Psychology, it is described as the part of the super-ego (the part of the psyche that plays a critical and moralizing role) that transmits commands and admonitions to the ego (the organized and realistic part of the psyche).

Coming back to guilt in the Islamic context, which part then of the Islamic psyche is guilt associated with? In Islamic psychology, the nafs ul-lawwaama (the self-reproaching self –also mentioned in the Holy Qur’an) is that part of the self (nafs) which blames or reproaches one for committing a wrong.  Imam al-Ghazali in his Revival of the Religious Sciences (Ihya Ulum ud-Din) described the nafs ul-lawwaama as the imperfect part of a greater and higher self called the nafs ul-mutmainnah (the calm self that is not moved by passion and that has assumed stillness, remaining satisfied). The great imam described the nafs ul-lawwaama as the imperfect part of the calm self that accuses and blames the self when divine duties are neglected. Another part of the nafs which is impulsive in its nature, is moved by passion, and incites or commands towards misdeeds and rashness is the nafs ul-ammaarah (the commanding self). This part of the self is the one blamed by the nafs ul-lawwaamah when a misdeed occurs. It is the part of the nafs that upon death dies along with the body. Thus, based on the definition of the nafs ul-lawwama we can safely say that the conscience is really part of or derived from the nafs ul-lawwama. Subsequently, while laudable if it is developed, it is not the highest form of the self, by Islamic ethical standards, since its motivation is the guilty emotion rather than self-discipline, self-restraint, righteousness, and so forth which are all products of the calm self. And so, by Islamic standards, the nafs ul-mutmainnah is in reality the highest form of the self and the goal of every sincere believer.  The point being made here is that guilt serves a purpose in the prevention of evil, but is not Islam’s goal for its collective culture. The goal of the collective psyche of Muslims is much higher and much more refined than just the collective guilty emotion.

The purpose of this article is to open up a window for Western reader into the development of a particular trait or virtue which in fact has an immense impact on the behavior and conduct of the Islamic culture.  This trait is not based on a culture, meaning a particular ethnic group, but is based in the religion and impacts the dynamics of the entire Muslim world.  As part of this virtue, ghayrah does play a part initially, yet to say that ghayrah and it’s consequences alone are the catalyst for collective behavioral change in a the Islamic culture is to over-simplify this complex virtue that I am about to discuss.

To begin, I will start with the stages of character development (tarbiyyah) typically employed in Islamic societies.

Stages of Tarbiyyah

As a part of enjoining good and forbidding evil, Islam lays the emphasis mainly on accountability of deeds. Accountability moves from the external (dhahir) realm to the internal (baatin). In other words, it starts with being accountable to other than the self, and it is perfected by being accountable eventually to God through a personal relationship that takes a lifetime to develop in the self. 

For the child, the object of attachment, love and trust are parents. Thus parents become the primary guide and overseers of the actions of the child.  Through this relationship, a secure boundary in created in which the child learns those things beneficial and harmful for it. This is the beginning of tarbiyyah of the child. As a result, when the child is away from the parents or alone, it seeks the accountability of its parents in doubtful matters and remembers those things that are permitted or forbidden by the parents as a guide to make the appropriate life decision. In traditional societies and most Muslim countries, traditional parents will typically inform their teens to use their parents’ opinions as a guide when they are alone or need to make choices. They are reminded to ask themselves, “What would your parents think about the deed you are about to commit?” If the answer inclines towards their disapproval or towards the youth feeling a sense of shame and dishonor of his parents were he or she to commit the deed, it serves as a signal that such an act should be avoided.

This training is the beginning of self-restraint. Far from wounding the self, when the urge to commit an impending misdeed dissipates (as a result of not doing it out of shame or ghayrah), the self is left liberated because an evil act was avoided resulting in the strengthening of self-restraint, discipline, and esteem. These virtues free the individual from the need of excessive shame (which is negative) and from even falling into guilt (which too can be wounding to the self if in excess).  Since spirituality has not yet fully developed in the young teen, healthy shame continues to play a role in his or her life until spiritual maturity sets in.

The Prophetic example and those that followed remind the youth and parents to encourage the choice of good company and to avoid the bad of it. The Prophet (peace be upon him) once said: “Man is influenced by the faith of his friends. Therefore, be careful of whom you associate with.” and “A man is upon the religion of his friend, and there is no good in friendship with one who does not see for you what he sees for himself.” Hazrat Ali (may God be pleased with him) the fourth Caliph of Islam once said “The company of bad people becomes the cause of low esteem of the good people.” Because young adults tend to trust and confide in friends as part of normal human development, friends play an important role in his or her development. The effect of bad company on the youth is not hidden from any parent who has a teen. A good friend on the other hand will guide his or her friend to that which is positive, beneficial, safe and wholesome. Friends that don’t care for other than themselves will attempt to corrupt the behavior of his or her peers to justify his or her own behavior. Good friends, how they view the world, and their opinions all thus become an important part of the tarbiyyah of the young adult as an extension of the greater Muslim community.

One of the concerns of people belonging to Eastern cultures is that in Western societies teens are prematurely offered the right to privacy, at school, at the doctor’s office, hospital, etc, resulting in a sudden disconnect after elementary school between parents and the child. Parents are not fully aware of the activities and the behavior of their teen outside the home, and these children of Eastern parents often end up living hypocritical and dual lives, one in the house and another out. One may also attribute the rude behavior that is so commonly found among the youth with respect to their teachers and lack of respect for elders in general to this disconnect. Were a well-wisher of the child to inform on the child’s deeds to the parents, he or she would often be rebuked for minding the others’ business or in the case of professionals, reported on for being unprofessional. Privacy is a touchy subject in Western societies and what is being presented here is how Islamic cultures see it. On the other hand, in Islamic cultures, this overseeing of the child takes place at the community level where elders and teachers play a role.  As a result, a youth will think twice, even thrice before publically committing an offence in the fear that someone who knows him and his parents will witness and report on his or her misdeeds, and thus dishonoring him and his family. In such societies, a healthy shame and positive ghayrah prevents evil deeds in the wider interest of the society. The point here is that, at this stage, the overseeing of the well-being of the youth moves from parents to positive role models, friends, teachers, and the community in general as well. 

Additionally, within the community, religious institutions also play a vital role in the tarbiyyah of the child and youth. Typically this starts with recitation of the Qur’an and with teaching prayer rituals, and basic Islamic ethics. While religious knowledge (Islamic law and other subjects) beyond the basics is encouraged in young adulthood, its effect still does not set in until the spiritual development of the child is also occurring, which becomes possible only when the youth comprehends and applies what he or she has learned from the religious education.  Application of spiritual and religious knowledge requires many factors towards its success. This includes positive role models, positive example and encouragement of parents, and a healthy environment to develop. Such an environment is provided by the community and parents, so that when the child moves into young adulthood (teen years) and tests the boundaries set by parents early on, the environment acts as a preventative towards extreme and immoral lifestyles and counter-cultures.

When spiritual yearning, search for the truth, and faith hopefully set in when the young adult takes on a more mature outlook, the realization of earlier lessons of tarbiyyah begin to ring true. Now the lessons learned in the past become the guide.  The realization of the kiraam ul-kaatibeen sets in. The kiraam ul-kaatibeen are angels who record deeds, good, and evil, on either sides of the shoulders of each human being. These deeds are laid open on the Day of Judgment when an accounting is performed. Now the mature religiously inclined youth is concerned with increasing his or her good deeds and avoiding evil ones. As a result he or she remains watchful over their actions so that they are not put to shame when the books and accounting are opened on the Day of Judgment in front of God and all of humanity to see. This is the effect of a religious teaching in ideal conditions and now this sense of being accountable to an Higher Authority is further strengthened, yet not complete.

As one grows from religiousness to spirituality and love for the Prophet of God, the guide of humanity (peace be upon him), sets deep inside the spiritual Muslim, the possibility of being dishonored before the Beloved Prophet of God (peace be upon him) when his or her deeds are presented to him daily, as mentioned in the Prophetic traditions, becomes a preventative, not just out of fear but out of love for the Prophet of God (peace and blessings be upon him and his family). This ultimately ends with love for God rather than just the fear of God, and culminates in true God-consciousness. This is the state of Ihsaan where one worships God as if he sees Him and if he does not, he realizes that God is watching him and that no secret lies hidden from the Creator of the Universe, Most Exalted. When this sense of accountability becomes ingrained and faith is complete, one ultimately remains concerned only with that which is pleasing or displeasing to God. For that individual, all other opinions of societal players where shame or ghayrah plays a part fade away. Yet their status in society as parents, adults, teachers, role models is not lost. All of these players must be given due respect for the role they have played in the development of this value called taqwa in Islam. What remains is the taqwa of God and accountability ultimately to the Knower of the Unseen (‘Aalim al-Ghayb).

Thus the tarbiyyah of the Muslim individual starts with parent-consciousness, family-consciousness, community-consciousness, angel-consciousness, prophet-consciousness, and eventually ends with the highest form of consciousness, which is a form of God-consciousness called taqwa. Its development is not solely at the hands of parents, but as a complete working system in the greater interest of society.

Taqwa therefore doesn’t merely mean to have a conscience since guilt is not the primary motivator. As discussed, it doesn’t even come close to describing the inner meanings of this word because of the western cultural background associated with the word conscience.  So when Islamic societies have become characterized by psychologists as being shame-based as opposed to guilt-based, it only makes sense that we question how much of that is true.  Based on what we have learned about the Islamic character development, it would be more accurate to describe the Islamic culture as a “Taqwa-based” culture as opposed to just  “shame-based”. This will more accurately describe the Islamic culture as Islam’s method is one of moderation, a middle way, which avoids and discourages extremism in action and in character. Subsequently extreme shame and extreme guilt both are looked down upon in Islam.

How far, then, from the truth can one be by implying that wrong-doing is acceptable to those who belong to “Islamic cultures” as long as no one knows? And to label the Islamic culture as shame-based only is an over-simplification of a culture that is hugely diverse and widespread that not only spans the Muslim world but also has vast numbers of adherents who have been born and raised in Western countries. Theories such as these, when expounded by those with an agenda or ill-intent, can be very dangerous as it leads to the systematic dehumanization of a people, not unlike those who use ghayrah negatively.  Are we then not any different than those we are trying to implicate?

…Continued in Part 2 and Part 3

Part 2 and 3 to include:

– Definition of Taqwa
– Natural Outcomes of Taqwa
– Motivators of Taqwa
– The Effect of Fasting in Ramadan on Taqwa
– Levels of Taqwa

Sharaaz Khan
Sharaaz Khan is Managing Director of the Islamic Education and Cultural Research Center (IECRC) and the IECRC Academy for Youth and Children, Sacramento where he teaches Islamic subjects to children and youth and provides Islamic counseling, mediation, and healing to Muslims and non-Muslims alike. He is a Curriculum Developer, Instructional Designer & Learning Operations professional.

Ramadan Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

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1.     Question: Is a verbal intention (niyyah) required for every fast of Ramadan? Or is one intention enough for the entire month? What if I miss suhoor and was not able to make the intention? Can I still fast?

Answer: An intention is required for every fast of Ramadan just like an intention is required for every obligatory prayer. The intention (niyyah) is from the conditions (shuroot) of obligatory actions such as prayer or fasting. However the intention need not be verbal. It can be in the heart. Waking up for the pre-dawn meal (suhoor) in itself satisfies the manifestation of this intention. If one forgets to make an intention before sleeping the night before, and is not able to wake up for suhoor, then one can make the intention as soon as one wakes up. The general rule is that the intention the next morning should be made before nisf-nahar / zawal (midday / meridian). (However legitimate exceptions exist. For example: A person who has returned very tired from night duty, forgot to make the intention before sleeping and slept through suhoor and woke up after nisf-nahar. He/she can still make the niyyah to fast when he/she wakes up. This is an exception due to the special nature of this situation.)

2.      Question: It is very important for the fasting person to know the medical importance of fasting, besides the spiritual one. Due to lack of preparation for this period, people tend to eat less / more and during inappropriate times. This can be harmful and it does not fulfill the purpose of fasting. What were the eating habits of our Holy Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) during the Holy month of Ramadan both for Suhoor and Iftar? Could you please suggest a diet program for modern day cuisines that includes the type of food to be consumed in Suhoor, Iftar, dinner and after-Taraweeh snack, according to the food mentioned in Quran and the Sunnah of Our Beloved Prophet Hazrat Muhammad Mustafa (peace be upon him and his family).  [Question submitted by Brother Abdul Sacoor, Germany]

Answer: Fasting has actually been proven by medical science to be good for health if implemented in the correct manner. It burns off bad fats and cholesterols. The water that one drinks after breaking the fast purifies the liver rapidly. Fasting contributes towards weight loss, helps heal stomach disorders, sharpens one’s bodily responses and signals. The body physique is made more balanced. The Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him and his family) had the perfect body and walked with balanced steps. It is recommended to eat suhoor even if it is one morsel. However, suhoor should not be considered as a way to “stock up” food reserves. It is not recommended to overeat during suhoor. One of the main goals of Ramadan is to teach dependence on Allah (tawakkul) and one should have this attitude in one’s sustenance as well. Most modern day cuisines with their fried and fatty foods are unhealthy. The general rule in Islam is to avoid anything that is harmful to the body and food is no exception. Foods consumed during Ramadan (and the rest of the year) should be light, non-flatulent and healthy. One of the benefits of Ramadan is to train us to become habituated to healthy foods. The healthiest foods of course belonged to the blessed diet of our Beloved Holy Prophet (peace be upon him and his family). This included dates, water, barley, milk and honey in their purest forms. It is recommended to drink milk from animals that have been reared in a natural environment and fed natural, chemical-free foods. And it is best to consume local honey. The Holy Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) also consumed bread and halaal meat, but in a balanced way.

3.     Question: We are told that smoking breaks the fast. What about second hand smoke (smoke from others smoking), or smoke from some other source such as a fire? Does this break the fast too?

Answer: Second hand smoke does not break ones fast if one inhales it unintentionally. For example, a fasting person at an airport who has to clean out the smoking area will invariably inhale some second hand smoke. However he/she is not accountable for it, unless they linger in the area purposely enjoying it. Smoke from fires does not break one’s fast. Similarly, anything that lingers in the air where someone works and they inhale that (such as a flour mill, etc.) will likewise not break the fast.

4.     Question: Does water entering through the ear break the fast (for example while taking a shower)?

Answer: If water enters the ear unintentionally during bathing or swimming, then it does not break the fast. (Please note that scientifically the eardrum seals off the inner ear and does not allow the passing of anything but air from the outside. However some people have damaged eardrums which could potentially allow some droplets to enter.)

5.     Question: If the fast breaks due to any reason beyond one’s control, can the person eat immediately or must we wait until Iftar time?

Answer: If the fast breaks for any reason, it is obligatory (wajib) to desist from eating and drinking the rest of the day until Iftar time.

6.     Question: We are often told to break our fast at the first “Allahu Akbar” of the Adhan or our fast will become disliked (makrooh). Is this really true and which category of makrooh is it – tahreemi or tanzeehi? After breaking the fast, should we then continue eating during the Adhan and its following dua? Please advise of the best method of doing this so we don’t make our fast makrooh as well as we are not disrespectful of the Adhan. What is the real Sunnah method of breaking the fast?

Answer: It was the Sunnah of our Beloved Holy Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) to place a date in his blessed mouth at the first “Allahu Akbar” of the Adhan. The same would apply to any Muslim country where the Adhan is heard openly because the Adhan signifies the setting of the sun which brings in the time for Maghrib. The mu`adhdhin first breaks his fast and then calls the Adhan. However, in countries where the Adhan cannot be heard, it is better to wait a few minutes from the printed prayer timings to be absolutely sure that the sun has set by looking at the Eastern horizon for the grey-blue-pink strip which is usually visible as soon as the sun sets. The grey strip signifies the night coming in and the pink strip signifies the day going out and blue is the natural color of the sky during the day. In other words, it is better to wait a few minutes to be absolutely sure the sun has set. The fast becomes makrooh tanzeehi if one delays breaking it without any legitimate reason after having certainty that the sun has set. Having broken the fast one can continue eating in a respectful way paying full attention to the Adhan and responding to its words and then making the dua after Adhan as is prescribed in the Sunnah. It was the Sunnah of our Beloved Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) to break his fast with the Sahaba (Companions, may Allah be well pleased with them). One should not be slow in the consumption of the Iftaar lest the Maghrib prayer is delayed. The dinner can precede Maghrib prayer if it does not become a cause of holding up the prayer.

7.     Question: If we have invited guests over for Iftar and that delays our going for Taraweeh, is that permissible? What is more important: performing the ‘Isha/ Taraweeh prayers in congregation at the mosque, or tending to our guests at the house? Is there a difference in ruling here for men and women?

Answer: For men it is very highly recommended to go to the mosque to perform ‘Isha in congregation followed by the Taraweeh prayers. As for women, if it is their habit to do so, then they too should make every attempt to go to the mosque as well (maintaining all the etiquettes of the required Islamic modesty). Listening to the Holy Quran being recited during the Taraweeh prayers is a great act of worship. The guests should be encouraged to go as well. Ramadan is a very special month and its every moment is precious and must be spent in the worship of Allah, The Most Exalted, and the service of His needy creation.

8.     Question: Does taking an injection break the fast?

Answer: Yes it does.

9.     Question: If a nursing mother decides not to fast during Ramadan for legitimate medical reasons (example reduction in milk), does she have to pay fidya (expiation) as well as make up the fast(s) later on?

Answer: No, she does not need to pay fidya. She must however make up her missed fast(s) at her first opportunity.

Answers provided by Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ahmed Qadri, Founding Director of IECRC USA and Canada.

10.     Question: What is the Shar’i ruling for the Taraweeh Prayer? Is it 8 or 20 rakats (cycles)?

Answer: The Taraweeh prayer is Sunnah Mu’akkadah (emphasized, regular Sunnah). It is 20 rakats. Please read the article below for the required references:

Hadrat Abu Hurairah radi Allahu anhu reported that the Messenger of Allah sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam has said, 

من قام رمضان إيمانا واحتسابا غفر له ما تقدم من ذنبه
“…whoever prays during the night in Ramadan sincerely; seeking his reward from Allah, his former sins are forgiven.” [Sahih al-Muslim, Vol. 1, Page 259, Hadith 1815]

Hadrat Sa’ib ibn Yazid has stated that,

كانوا يقومون على عهد عمر بن الخطاب رضى الله عنه فى شهر رمضان بعشرين ركعة
“We, (the Companions of the Beloved Prophet,) used to pray twenty rak’ats Tarawih prayer in the era of the Caliph ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab.” [Sunan al-Bayhaqi, Vol. 2, Page 224, Hadith 4801]

It has been stated in Mirqat al-Mafatih:

إسناده صحيح
The chain of narration of this Hadith is sound (Sahih). [Mirqat al-Mafatih – Vol. 2, Page 175]

Hadrat Yazid ibn Ruman reports that

كان الناس يقومون فى زمان عمر بن الخطاب فى رمضان بثلاث وعشرين ركعة
“…during the time of Hadrat ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab, people used to pray 23 Rak’ahs during Ramadan (20 rak’ahs for Tarawih prayer and 3 rak’ats for witr.)” [Muwatta Imam Malik, Vol. 1, Page 115, Hadith 251]

Sayyiduna Ibn Abbas Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu narrates, said that,

أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يصلي في رمضان عشرين ركعة سوى الوتر
During the month of Ramadan, aside from the praying of wit’r the beloved Prophet SallAllahu Alaihi wa Aaihi wa Sallam would also pray 20 rak’ahs of Tarawih.

Ibn Abi Shayba, Musannaf, Vol. 2, Page 164, Hadith 7692
At-Tabarani, Mu’jam al-Awsat, Vol. 1, Page 243, Hadith 798
At-Tabarani, Mu’jam al-Awsat, Vol. 5, Page 324, Hadith 5440
At-Tabarani, Mu’jam al-Kabir, Vol. 11, Page 393, Hadith 12102
Al-Bayhaqi, Sunan al-Kubra, Vol. 2, Page 496, Hadith 4391
Abd bin Hamid, Musnad, Vol. 1, Page 218, Hadith 653
Khatib al-Baghdadi, Tarikh, Vol. 6, Page 113
Al-Haytami, Majma’ az-Zawaid, Vol. 3, Page 172
Ibn Abd-al Barr, al-Tamhid, Vol. 8, Page 115
Al-Asqalani, Fath al-Bari, Vol. 4, Page 254, Hadith 1908
Al-Asqalani, al-Diraya, Vol. 1, Page 203, Hadith 257
As-Suyooti, Tanwir al-Hawaliq, Vol. 1, Page 108, Hadith 263
Zahbi, Mizan al-Ae’tidal, Vol. 1, Page 170
Al-San’ani, Subul Islam, Vol. 2, Page 10
Al-Mizzi, Tahzib al-Kamal, Vol. 2, Page 149
Al-Zela’i, Nasb al-Rayah, Vol. 2, Page 153
Zurqani, Sharh Alal Muwatta, Vol. 1, Page 342
The consensus ( Ijma’) of the Companions

A companion of Sayyiduna Ali Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu, Sayyiduna Shutayr bin Shakil narrates that,

During the month of Ramadan Sayyiduna Ali would read 20 rak’ahs of Tarawih and 3 wit’r.

Ibn Abi Shayba, Musannaf, Vol. 2, Page 163, Hadith 7680
Al-Bayhaqi, Sunan al-Kubra, Vol. 2, Page 496, Hadith 4395
Sayyiduna Abu Abd-ar Rahman Sulami Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu said,

In the month of Ramadan, Sayyiduna Ali Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu sent for all the Qur’anic recitors, and instructed one of them to lead 20 rak’ahs Tarawih, and Sayyiduna Ali himself would lead the wit’r prayer. [Al-Bayhaqi, Sunan al-Kubra, Vol. 2, Page 496, Hadith 4396]

It is narrated that,

Sayyiduna Ali Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu ordered a person to lead the Muslims in the prayer of 20 rak’ahs of Tarawih, and this was aside from the wit’r. [Ibn Abd-al Barr, al-Tamhid, Vol. 8, Page 115]

Sayyiduna Yahya bin Sa’id Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu said that,

Sayyiduna Umar Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu ordered an individual that he lead them in the prayer of 20 rak’ahs of Tarawih. [Ibn Abi Shayba, Musannaf, Vol. 2, Page 163, Hadith 7682]

Sayyiduna Naf’i bin Umar Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu states that,

Ibn Abi Malkiya would lead us in the prayer of 20 rak’ahs of Tarawih in the month of Ramadan. [Ibn Abi Shayba, Musannaf, Vol. 2, Page 163, Hadith 7683]

Sayyiduna Abd-al Aziz bin Rafi’ Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu states that,

Sayyiduna Abi Bin Ka’ab Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu would lead the people of Madinah al-Munawwarah during the month of Ramadan in the praying of 20 rak’ahs of Tarawih and 3 wit’r. [Ibn Abi Shayba, Musannaf, Vol. 2, Page 163, Hadith 7684]

Sayyiduna Hata’ Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu states that,

I have observed worshippers praying 23 rak’ahs of Tarawih comprising of the wit’r. [Ibn Abi Shayba, Musannaf, Vol. 2, Page 163, Hadith 7688]

Malik al-‘Ulama Hadrat ‘Allama ‘Ala al-Din Abubakr ibn Mas’ud al-Kasani states:

It has been narrated that Hadrat ‘Umar al-Faruq assembled all the companions in the month of Ramadan to perform Tarawih behind Hadrat Ubayy ibn Ka’b. so, he (Hadrat Ubayy ibn Ka’b) lead them in the Tarawih prayer performing twenty (20) Rak’ats every night. No one from them ever refuted or disapproved of this. Thus, the Ijma’ (consensus) of all the companions was on performing twenty rak’ats for the Tarawih prayer. [Bada’i al-Sana’i – Vol. 1, Page 288]

Imam Badr al-Din al-‘Aini states in his renowned commentary on Sahih al-Bukhari entitled, “Umdat al-Qari”:

‘Allama ibn ‘Abd al-Barr has states that it is the ruling of the majority of the scholars that tarawih is twenty Rak’ats. The scholars and jurists of Kufa, Imam al-Shafi’i and the majority of the Fuqaha have stated this, and this is the sound opinion as transmitted from Hadrat Ubayy ibn Ka’b that no companion had a difference of opinion in it. [‘Umdatul Qari – Vol. 5, Page 355]

Shaykh al-Islam, al-Imam al-Hafiz ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani states:

It is the Ijma’ of the companions upon the fact that the Tarawih prayers consists of twenty rak’ats.

It has been stated in Maraqiy al-Falah the commentary of Nur al-Idah that:

Tarawih is twenty rak’ats, as the Ijma’ of the companions is upon this.

‘Allama ‘Abd al-Hayy Faranghi Mahalli states:

It has been proven that the companions used to perform tarawih twenty rak’ats in the blessed eras of Hadrat ‘Umar, Hadrat ‘Uthman, Hadrat ‘Ali and all those who came after them. Such reports have been transmitted by Imam Malik, ibn Sa’d, Imam Baihaqi and others. [‘Umdah al-Ri’ayah hashiyah Sharh al-Waqayah – Vol. 1, Page 175]

Imam Mulla ‘Ali al-Qari states:

The companions all agree (it is their consensus) upon the fact that Tarawih is twenty rak’ats.[Mirqat al-Mafatih – Vol. 2, Page 175]

The ruling of the Majority

Imam Tirmidhi states:

The majority of the scholars practice what has been transmitted from Hadrat ‘Umar Faruq, Hadrat ‘Ali and the other companions that Tarawih is twenty rak’ats. Imam Sufiyan al-Thawri, Imam ‘Abdullah ibn Mubarak and Imam al-Shafi’i have stated the same (that Tarawih is twenty rak’ats). Imam Shafi’i has stated that we have found the residents of our city Makkah al-Mukarramah performing twenty rak’ats for the Tarawih prayer. [Tirmidhi – Chapter on worshipping the nights of Ramadan – Page 99]

Imam Mulla ‘Ali al-Qari has stated:

It is the conformity of all the muslims upon the twenty rak’ats for Tarawih. This is because Imam Baihaqi narrates with a sound chain of transmission that in the blessed era of Hadrat ‘Umar, Hadrat ‘Uthman and Hadrat ‘Ali, the companions and all those who followed them (Tabi’un) performed twenty rak’ats for the Tarawih prayer. [Babu Fath al-‘Inayah Sharh al-Nuqayah]

It has been stated in the commentary of Tahtawi on Maraqiy al-Falah that:

By the continuous practice of Hadrat Abubakr al-Siddiq and the other Rightly-Guided Caliphs, it has been proven that Tarawih is twenty rak’ats. [Page 224]

‘Allama ibn ‘Abidin al-Shami states:

Tarawih is twenty rak’ats; this is the ruling of the majority of the scholars and the common practice of all Muslims from east till west. [Radd al-Muhtar – Vol. 1, Page 195]

Shaykh Zain al-Din ibn Nujaim al-Misri states:

Twenty rak’ats Tarawih is the ruling of the majority of the scholars. This is because it has been reported in the Muwatta of Imam Malik on the authority of Hadrat Yazid ibn Ruman that in the blessed era of Hadrat ‘Umar al-Faruq the companions used to perform twenty-three rak’ats (twenty rak’ats for Tarawih and three rak’ats for the Witr.) [al-Bahr al-Ra’iq – Vol. 2, Page 66]

Imam Ali Qari al-Hanafi (d. 1014 AH), He said in Sharh al-Naqayah:

“Imam Bayhaqi has reported on genuine authority (sahih) about the performance of 20 rak’ahs of Tarawih during the periods of Umar, Uthman and Ali Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhum, and hence there has been consensus (Ijma’) on it.”

It has been stated in al-‘Inayah the commentary of al-Hidayah that:

Until the beginning of the Khilafah (reign) of Hadrat ‘Umar al-Faruq, the companions used to perform the Tarawih individually. Thereafter, Hadrat ‘Umar stated that, “I find it better to assemble all the companions (to perform the Tarawih) behind one Imam.” Thus, he assembled all the companions to perform the Tarawih with congregation behind Hadrat Ubayy ibn Ka’b. Hadrat Ubayy lead them in the Tarawih performing 5 sets of four-rak’ats (tarwiha) i.e. performed twenty rak’ats.

In al-Kifayah it states:

Tarawih is twenty rak’ats in total. This is our (Hanafi) ruling and that of the school of Imam al-Shafi’i.

In Bada’i al-Sana’i it has been stated:

The number of rak’ats for the Tarawih prayer is twenty; five tarweha with one salam; every two salams is a tarweha (i.e. one salaam made after every 2 rak’ats. Therefore, two salaams means after four rak’ats). This is the ruling of the scholars in general. [Vol. 1, Page 288]

Imam al-Ghazzali states:

Tarawih is twenty rak’ats. [Ihya ‘Ulum al-Din – Vol. 1, Page 201]

In Sharh al-Waqaya it has been stated:

Twenty rak’ats for the Tarawih is the Sunnah. [Vol. 1, Page 175]

In Fatawa ‘Alamgiri (also known as “al-Fatawa al-Hindiyyah”) it states:

Tarawih consists of five Tarweha; each tarweha is four rak’ats with two salaams (made at the end of two rak’ats). This has also been stated in al-Sirajiyyah. [Vol. 1. Page 108]

Shah Waliyullah Muhaddith-e-Dehlwi states:

The number of rak’ats for the Tarawih is twenty. [Hujjatullahil Baligha – Vol. 2, Page 18]


Wisdom behind twenty rak’ats for Tarawih

The wisdom behind it is that in total there are twenty rak’ats Fard and Wajib throughout the day and night; 17 rak’ats are fard and 3 rak’ats are Wajib. Tarawih is twenty Rak’ats so that in the month of Ramadan the status of these twenty rak’ats Fard and Wajib are elevated and so that the Tarawih prayer takes these twenty rak’ats to perfection. [al-Bahr al-Ra’iq Vol. 2 Page 67 – Tahtawi commentary on Maraqiy al-Falah – Radd al-Muhtar Vol. 1 Page 495 – al-Nahr al-Fa’iq] 
— — —
Extracted From
Anwaar al-Hadith, Chapter 3 – The Book of Salaah
by Hadrat Allama Mufti Jalal al-Din Qadiri al-Amjadi
English Translation: Mawlana Kalim al-Qadiri [Bolton – U.K.]

Written by Shagufta Ahmad

August 14, 2010 at 7:34 am

Being a Shepherd of Your Family in Modern Times

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In the Name of Allah the Most Merciful, Most Compassionate

Countless blessing and greetings upon the Best of Creation, His Blessed Prophet (sallallahu alyhe wasallam).
Allah Subhana wa  Ta’aala has commanded us in the Holy Qur’an that we should save our children from a fire whose fuel is human beings and stones (man-made idols).

O ye who believe! save yourselves and your families from a Fire whose fuel is Men and Stones, over which are (appointed) angels stern (and) severe, who flinch not (from executing) the Commands they receive from Allah, but do (precisely) what they are commanded. [Quran 66:6]
The word “responsibility” in the Merriam-Webster English dictionary is defined as the quality or state of being responsible: as a : moral, legal, or mental accountability.”
There a several ahadith of the Beloved Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) that explain responsibility.  The most well-known of them are:
Ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “All of you are shepherds and each of you is responsible for his flock. A man is the shepherd of the people of his house and he is responsible. A woman is the shepherd of the house of her husband and she is responsible. Each of you is a shepherd and each is responsible for his flock.” and
Ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “All of you are shepherds and each of you is responsible for his flock. A man is the shepherd of the people of his house and he is responsible. A woman is the shepherd of the house of her husband and she is responsible. Each of you is a shepherd and each is responsible for his flock.”
In Arabic, the word used for the one responsible is mas-oulun. The root of this word is S-A-L and derived from it are words such as sa-ala (to ask or he asked), su-ila (to be asked or to be questioned) and su-aalun (a question).  Thus mas-oulun in reality is the one who will be questioned about that which, or the ones who, he was responsible over.  The ahadith delineates who is responsible for what and the questioning about these responsibilities will be on the Day of Judgement.
A shepherd is someone who is watchful over his herd.  He rests with one eye open mindful of the fact that lurking in the bush are wild predators who are too ever-diligent.  He tends to his flock when they are hurt or ill, and separates the sick animals from the herd for the better of the others until they are well again.  He cares for their diet and cleanliness to prevent malnutrition and infection.  Why should parenting be any different?
Thus as parents, we have a set of responsibilities in the household.  The father must provide food, clothing, shelter, and a sound education to his children. With respect to education, he is mas-oulun of (will be questioned ) specifically about whether or not he had taught his children the Quran and taught the them what is right and what is wrong.  He is to marry a pious woman who has good moral values so that she can practically raise the child with good character.  If the mother and father don’t have the knowledge of the Quran and how to pray and so forth, they should hire someone to do it.  Nevertheless, they are not free from this responsibility. Thus, you (parents) and no one else are responsible for your children’s upbringing and education.
Allah Subhana Wa Ta’ala is the Giver of Knowledge, but the nature of learning involves a process, one mostly requiring sacrifice of time, effort, and wisdom.  Learning does not happen if you do not make an effort and provide a means and environment for your children to flourish. You must encourage them to seek knowledge, to gain it, to apply it, then to pass it on to the next generation. After all, is it or not in your interest to save your spiritual nasl (lineage) and not just your family lineage? Is it or not in your interest that after you leave this world that they pray for you? Is it or not your interest that they have the emotional and spiritual tools to navigate through the difficult trails and tribulations of life so that they do not become a liability on you and society in your old age?  A sound Islamic education has countless benefits. Those mentioned here are but a few.
When I ask parents why is it they do not send their children for classes or why are they not showing up for class, the answer usually is “They don’t want to come during such and such time” or “They have too much homework” or some other reason.  Muslim parents, today’s children and teenagers have countless pressures, excessive homework, school, friends and peers and to add to these, they have way too many distractions with the coming of the electronic age. Its easy for parents to feel that their children are already burdened and overwhelmed, so why add more “education” on their plate? My answer to that question is another question. “How many children would actually say “I want to learn Islam. I am interested in learning more, I want to seek and gain knowledge,” if we don’t encourage them towards this end?” If parents were to leave their children’s education in the hands of their children, do you think they will incline towards it without question? Thus, parents, its you who must encourage them towards this end whether they like it or not.   You must engage with then by asking them what they know about their religion and when they are at it, what they have learned. You must also attend the Islamic classes they take so that you too can understand its importance, and by having them revise and by asking and assessing their progress.  Who said parenting was easy let alone raising wise, and moral children?
Then when they have started on that path, you must encourage them to stay with the program and not to become the Islamic school dropout. Our elders used to say that when you start something, finish it.  Traditional scholars tell a story that describes this value well.  Two young men set out to find water.  One digs two feet and doesn’t find water, moves on to another spot in the field and after finding  nothing after two feet again moves on until he digs hundreds of holes without ever striking water. The second youth digs and doesn’t stop digging until he strikes water at 25 feet. Who worked harder? Who worked smarter? Who reached his goal?  We must support them to work hard but also to work smart. 
This parable tells a great deal about the youth, who, mind you, are our future. It reflects the impatience expressed when it comes to Islamic learning.  This generation especially has changed so much in such a short period of time in contrast to their parents and grandparents, who 10-30 years ago were in their shoes, yet are galaxies apart. An age where electronic media is everything and where learning of the religion is also becoming limited to Television, YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, and Hadith by way of texting, if you are lucky to have them incline towards the Deen.  The remote and flashing images on screens, fast-moving games that are constantly changing,  has changed something deep inside our children forever. They want learning to be fun and to be short and sweet otherwise it is “boring”. And if it doesn’t meet that standard, they may always change the channel on the teacher or abandon their Islamic studies.  We can only hope that the reality is not so grim, but what if it is? The statistics surely reflect that.
USA Today recently reported that the Millenium Generation is not interested in “organized” religion. That if this trend is not turned, churches will close in the same way that GM car factories and showrooms have all around the country.  Do you think that Muslims will not be affected by this trend? If we are living in the US, our children are bound to take on similar attributes as those who live here no matter how much you try to prevent it.  We are not any different.  The Prophet (sallallahu alyhe wasallam) once said:
Man qaama bi qaumin arba’eena yawman fa huwa minhum
He who stays with a nation for forty days, he is one of them.
Think about your teenager 5-10 years from today, when they will have their own children.  If now is not the time for them to get an Islamic education, when is?  When they are parents do you think they will have the time to get an Islamic education in that stage of your life? Are you able to? Then is it fair to them to think that they will find the time? 
The In-and-Out syndrome or the two-feet syndrome is a sign of our times because committment is hard to find but it’s also laziness both on the parents’ and children’s behalf.  And laziness is disliked in this religion of yours as one is encouraged to flee it or to seek refuge from it:
The following dua has been related from the Messenger (upon whom be peace) for protection against laziness among other problems:

Allahumma inni aaudhu bika minal-ajzi wal-kasli wal-jubni wal-harami wal-bukhli, wa a’udhbika min adhabil qabri, wa a’udhubika fitnatil mahya walmamat.

O Allah, I seek refuge in You from weakness and laziness, miserliness and cowardice, anxiety and sorrow, and I seek refuge in You from the torments of grave, and I seek refuge in You from the trials and tribulations of life and death.

Now here is an exercise that I advise every parent to do. Without your children noticing, listen to the conversations of your children.  Listen to the language they use among themselves, how do they talk to each other or write on the Internet.  Join Facebook and MySpace and have them become your friend. Then observe what they are saying to each other.  Catch up on the slang they use to communicate with each other.  If you are not giving them exposure to positive social interaction with other Muslim role models and providing enrichment outlets for them, you will probably be shocked. Don’t lose an opportunity when it comes knocking on your door. 
Parents, while it is important to give them an education that gets them through this economy, for Muslims, it’s even more important that they gain an education, apply it, then teach it to their offspring and those around them so that they are among the Muflihun (those who prospered, the successful ones) and not  those who become fuel for the fire on that Difficult Day of Reckoning.  And the standard of success with respect to Allah Subhana Wa Ta’ala and His Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wasallam) is not only this World.
There are Islamic centers all around the US and the world for this purpose. We are in the electronic age.  Classes are available remotely and via the Internet.  Seek them out.  You will find them. Now do you have an excuse?
The Islamic Educational & Cultural Research Center provides some opportunities for your children to gain an Islamic education.  Here is what is currently available: 
Call us, we’re here for you.  We are spending our late nights to keep these Centers alive. Don’t you think it’s time for you to do your part?
Contact us at this email or, or visit our Web Site at
Sharaaz Khan
Sharaaz Khan is Managing Director of the Islamic Education and Cultural Research Center (IECRC) and the IECRC Academy for Youth and Children, Sacramento where he teaches Islamic subjects to children and youth and provides Islamic counseling, mediation, and healing to Muslims and non-Muslims alike. He is a Curriculum Developer, Instructional Designer & Learning Operations professional.

Written by Sharaaz Khan

July 1, 2010 at 12:07 am

Summer Intensive, Quran Hifz, & Other Programs at IECRC

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Assalam Alaikum Wa Rahamatullahi Wa Barakaatuhu Dear IECRC Readers, Parents, and Students,

The IECRC Academy is a private school established in 2008 that provides quality, authentic, and traditional  religious education (in a contemporary context) for children, youth, and adults. Our programs are design to supplement students’ current education with an Islamic education and aims at creating conscientious human beings and model Muslim citizens. Classes are primarily on-site (in Sacramento and soon at other locations), while a few classes are available through remote learning. Our medium of instruction is English and emphasis is on Arabic for religious studies.

A full-time Hafiz ul-Qur’an program is also part of the services provided at the Academy.

Below is a list of the programs available at the Center:

  • Qur’an Qirat (recitation) Program
  • Qur’an Hifz (memorization) Program –Registration open for Full-time and Summer programs
  • Summer Intensive Islamic Studies Program (various subjects)
  • Weekend Youth Studies (Free classes)
  • Remote classes with top-notch scholars

Please visiting the link to the IECRC Academy web site for program, registration, timing, and other details.

Written by Sharaaz Khan

April 20, 2010 at 9:11 pm

Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) – The Ideal Model

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Almighty Allah (the most Gracious and most Exalted) says in Surah Al-Ahzaab [33:56]:

“Surely, Allah (The Most Exalted) and His Angels shower their blessing on the Nabi (Peace be upon him and his family). O, you who believe! Send upon him (Divine) blessings and salute him fully well with best salutation.”

This is a divine gift to the Muslim Ummah that Almighty Allah (Most Glorified and Exalted) invited them to join Him in His favorite pursuit of showering of blessing upon His Beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him and his family). Almighty Allah (The Most Exalted) and His angels have been sending and shall continue to send his blessings upon Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him and his family). This is a reward unparallel to any person in history on the face of earth.

Almighty Allah awarded him with another great reward: “And we exalted thy name”. Holy Prophet’s name is a part of the Kalimah Tayyaba “Lailaha illallah Muhammad ur Rasoolullah “In every Azan, Iqama, Salaat, Friday khutbas, sermons on Eids and Hajj, this Kalimah Tayyaba is repeated and raised loudly. In every Azan his name (peace be upon him and his family) is repeated twice. There are five azans per day – lets assume that there are 2 million mosques around the globe then the Prophet’s name Muhammad (Peace be upon him) is raised 20 million times daily from the minarets of the mosques alone! Subhan Allah!

Let’s look at one more example: there are 20 Farz (compulsory) rakaats daily Salaat for every Muslim where the name Muhammad (peace be upon him and his family) is repeated 35 times a day. For instance we take 500 million Muslims, which is a small figure according to this CNN World report 2009 “There are about 1.57 billion Muslims in the world, according to the report, “Mapping the Global Muslim Population” by the Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. That represents about 23 percent of the total global population of 6.8 billion. (

So, if 500 million Muslims in the world offer daily Salaat regularly. Prophet’s name Muhammad (peace be upon him and his family) is repeated 17,500,000,000 times per day on the face of earth!

There is no such example of any person, male or female whose name is repeated so abundantly and with such high dignity daily on earth and for the last 1400 years. This is NOT because of human efforts BUT because of this divine declaration in the Holy Quran :

“And We (Allah) have exalted high your dignity” [Surah Inshirah:4]

Whatever position Holy Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) was called upon to occupy, he brought to it a gleam, the like of which the history of man has not known. There is Muhammad (peace be upon him and his family), the Prophet. There is Muhammad (peace be upon him and his family), the Leader. There is Muhammad (peace be upon him and his family), the King. There is Muhammad (peace be upon him and his family), the Patriot. There is Muhammad (peace be upon him and his family), the Warrior. There is Muhammad (peace be upon him and his family), the Legislator, Muhammad (peace be upon him and his family) the Friend, Muhammad (peace be upon him and his family), the Compassionate, Muhammad (peace be upon him and his family) the Affectionate and so on…..

It was him (peace be upon him and his family) who brought the humanity to the zenith. He was the one (peace be upon him and his family) who received the title of “Rehmatul lil Alameen” (mercy for all the universe) from the Rabbul Alameen (Creator of all the universe). It was him (peace be upon him and his family) who Almighty Allah chose as the “Khatim un Nabi’een” and was named MUSTAFA (peace be upon him and his family) – the Chosen one!

“And We (Allah) have sent you (O dear Prophet Muhammad) except as a mercy for all the universe.” [Surah Al-Anbya – 107]

It was at the conquest of Makkah that Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him and his family) stood at the peak of hispower. His unconquerable will, unshakable determination, un-distractible purpose, through-going firmness, uncompromising persistency, indomitable spirit, endless patience, eternal endurance, irresistible courage, and a stamp of the nobility of character, mark the special features of his life.

His graciousness, his affability, his dignified character, his compassion, and politeness, his equable treatment to the powerful as well as the weak, his respectful attention to the rich as well as the poor and his generosity to friend as well as enemy inspired everyone. Even after receiving all the dignified titles and high positions, the king of all the worlds as already remarked, he would mend his clothes himself, cobble his shoes, milk his goats, and sleep on palm tree leaves with the pillow of his hands underneath his head, and Hazrat Omar (may Allah be well pleased with him) was touched to see the stripes on his body. Dates and barley bread were his usual meal and milk and honey, all his luxuries!

This is the noble role model about which the Holy Quran says:

“Certainly, you have an excellent model in following the Rasool (Messenger) of Allah. This is (ideal model) for the one who has hope in Allah and the Last Day and remembers Allah too much.” [Al-Ahzaab 33:21]

May Almighty Allah bless and guide us all to the right path and to follow His beloved Prophet’s (peace be upon him and his family) teachings. Ameen.

Sister Sadaf Akbani
Houston, Texas, USA

Sister Sadaf is a Computer Graphic Designer by profession. She is the Joint Secretary of Women’s Committee (Pakistani American Association Houston) and the Youth Secretary of Karwaan-e-Adab literary society Houston. She has received several awards in debates, essays, poetry and hosting.

Written by Shagufta Ahmad

February 20, 2010 at 3:41 pm